A statement says CorCom along with people has been observing October 15, 1949, on which Manipur (Kangleipak) was declared merged with India, as National Black Day (Leibakki Amamba Numit)
The CorCom, an umbrella body of major proscribed armed outfits operating in Manipur, on Saturday declared a 12-hour total shut down all over Manipur (Kangleipak) on the ‘National Black Day’ on October 15 from 6 am to 6 pm as a mark of protest against alleged Indian occupation of Manipur.
A statement issued by CorCom publicity committee appealed to the people to suspend all normal activities, including trade and commerce, games and sports, movement on public roads and all forms of entertainment programmes, and observe complete shutdown. Medical services, emergency services, media and religious activities would be exempted during the shutdown hours, it added.
Condemning alleged Indian occupation of Manipur, the statement said India, which claimed to be a democratic country, conspired and forced to sign the then King of Manipur in an undemocratic way by calling him in Shillong on September 21, 1947 without the consent of people and Council of Ministers elected by people of Manipur (Kangleipak) and officially declared on October 15, 1949 that Manipur (Kangleipak) was under Indian dominion. Manipur (Kangleipak), which was an independent kingdom for thousands of years, was reduced to the status of a district under colonial rule, it added.
It further said CorCom along with people has been observing October 15, 1949, on which Manipur (Kangleipak) was declared merged with India, as National Black Day ( Leibakki amamba numit). As a continuation of practices, CorCom declared total shut down all over Manipur (Kangleipak) on October 15, 2020, it added.
‘All treaties between India and Manipur null and void’
Treaties signed between British and Burmese rulers from time to time clearly showed Manipur (Kangleipak), which has written records of 2000 years old, was a sovereign independence nation in Asia with recognition by the then sovereign powers, it claimed.
The statement said Manipur (Kangleipak) had an alliance with British for the first time in 1762 on trade and military cooperation. Manipur was recognised as a sovereign independent country again by the treaty of Yandaboo 1826 signed between British and Burmese rulers after Seven Years of Devastations. In that treaty, British and Burma had agreed that they would not do anything that would infringe upon Manipur’s identity, territorial integrity and political Independence, it said.
In 1835, Pemberton Peport submitted to British authorities said that Manipur is an important sovereign state in Asia situated in between Assam and Burma. The Kolkata High Court in 1865 Keifa Singh case and 1867 Sajoupa case also said Manipur is an Asiatic sovereign power and in 1873 statistical account of Manipur R Brown stated that Manipur had become an independent sovereign country after the Ava Lan, it claimed. Further On July 27, 1891, a Memorandum of Argument submitted to British India on behalf of Kullachandra Singh, Regent, (King of Manipur) and Tikendrajit Singh Senapati (Commander in-chief, Manipur) before Anglo-Manipuri War stated that Manipur was an Independent Sovereign State, said the statement.
In August 1947, India and Pakistan was formed with the passage of Indian Independence Act 1947 by the British Parliament. According to Section 7(1)(b) of Indian Independence Act, Manipur and India were accorded equal status by restoring sovereignty of Manipur on August 14 1947 before it came under British rule, it claimed.
The statement also said Indian Independence Act 1947 gave birth to a new country called India while it restored the independence of Manipur, which was an Independent kingdom in Asia, and remained under British protectorate. On August 14, 1947, Manipur established its own government by adopting Manipur Constitution Act 1947.
“If we look back at the long history of Manipur, there was no relation with India, which was formed by British, and Manipur in any field. Only perceived relations between the two countries were standstill agreement and instrument of accession signed on August 11, 1947 and controversial Merger Agreement signed in Shillong on September 21, 1949 but rejected by people,” it said.
However, these so-called treaties could not be treated as treaties under international law. Both the standstill agreement and instrument of accession signed between British protectorate Manipur and British colony India August 11, 1947, were null and void as British protectorate King Bodhachandra had no power to sign any treaty before Indian Independence Act 1947 came into effect and India could not sign any treaty with any country or rulers as it was under British colonial rule, it said. The agreements had no legal validity as per Article 6, 7 and 8 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT). As per customary law character which binds all the nations, both standstill agreement and instrument of accession are null and void under international law as both the parties had no power and authority to sign any treaties, it added.
Secondly, both standstill agreement and instrument of accession were signed under Government of India Act 1935. However, the Government of India Act 1935 became no more valid on July 17, 1947 when Section 7(1)(b) Indian Independence Act 1947 came into force, it argued.
The statement claimed that Manipur (Kangleipak) was forcibly merged to India on September 21, 1949 by keeping King Bodhachandra under captive in Shillong superseding Manipur Constitution Act 1947 adopted by people of Independent Manipur and International laws. However, As per Manipur Constitution Act 1947, the King was just a constitutional head with no power. Power locus was entrusted first to Maharaja in Council, second to the State Council and third to the Advisory Assembly, it said. Various articles of the Manipur Constitution Act clearly mentioned that Maharaja had no power to sign the treaty, it added.
The statement stated that Bodhachandra had signed the Manipur Merger Agreement under duress could be established from telegram sent by Governor of Assam Prakasa through Secretary, Ministry of States VP Menon to the then Deputy Prime Minister, Sardar Patel and his response to Prakasa that “…is there no Indian Brigadier.
Besides, Manipur Legislative Assembly constituted by elected representatives under Manipur Constitution Act 1947 had adopted a resolution in its session on September 28 that the agreement signed in Shillong on September 21 clearly defied the sovereignty and independence of Manipur and the state was forcibly annexed with India, it said. Saying that Indian Independence Act 1947 accorded equal status to all princely states and dominion government legally, the statement claimed that it was upheld by the judgements given by the Supreme Court of India in Virendra Singh versus State of UP (AIR 1954 447), The State of Saurashtra versus Memon Haji Ismail Haji (AIR 1959 SC 1383), Raghunathrao Ganpathrao versus Union of India (AIR 1993 SC 1267) ect.
The statement further claimed that Manipur People’s Democratic Convention had on October 28-29, 1993 adopted that it was annexation with no legal validity and National Seminar on Human Rights held on December 8-9, 1994 observed that Merger Agreement has no legal validity.
It also said Historical evidence, especially the international relation of Manipur (Kangleipak) with other Sovereign Powers clearly showed Manipur became a protectorate under British Empire after Anglo-Manipuri War 1891.Though Manipur regained its sovereign and Independent status in 1947 after Indian Independence Act came into effect, India followed in British’s footsteps and occupied Manipur and Manipur became part of India, it alleged. Other than that, Manipur had no connection with India, it added.
‘Annexation not merger’
The statement claimed that people of Manipur had stood against Indian occupation and have been fighting for Independence of Manipur since then. Saying that people of Manipur held several meetings across the state, the statement claimed that after studying Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 and laid down international laws, people had rejected “Manipur Merger Agreement” as annexation and declared it null and void. “Firm resolutions were taken by people in unison to reclaim independence of Manipur by consulting various experts,” it added.
The statement further said Indian occupation of Manipur has completed 70 years. In the last 70 years, India has put Manipur (Kangleipak)’s administration and economy under the cage and unleashed several policies to crush customs, tradition and identity and assimilate the people to mainstream India, it alleged
Further CorCom accused India of resorting to demographic invasion by encouraging a huge influx of outsiders to destroy the identity and culture of and indigenous people, who are totally different from mainland Indian. People of Manipur should stand together to protect themselves from colonial policy and programmes of India to wipe out them, it said. Saying that the independence movement will determine the fate of our existence, CorCom urged people to support the movement to regain independence.CorCom, 12-hour shutdown